Course 12: Additive Manufacturing for Industry 4.0


Last Update: February 1,  2020

Course Objective:

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a technology supporting the sustainable rapid development of personalized complex design in various disruptive applications, especially in manufacturing and medical. This course aims to build student competence in AM and related technology. The students will learn fundamental knowledge of Additive Manufacturing and Reverse Engineering (RE) and their applications in manufacturing, medical and other sectors. Besides, the students will be proficient in practice design for additive manufacturing.

Learning Outcomes: The students on the completion of this course would be able to:

    • CLO1: Apply knowledge on additive manufacturing, and reverse engineering in a variety of domains (apply);
    • CLO2: Investigate process parameters for effective additive manufacturing (create);
    • CLO3: Differentiate principles behind additive manufacturing and reverse engineering technologies available in the market (analyze);
    • CLO4: Select an appropriate AM technology based on preset optimisation criteria (eg. cost, quality, time/ available resources) (evaluate);
    • CLO5: Apply design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) in practice for the development of new products (apply);
    • CLO6: Communicate effectively and work in a team environment (apply).

Prerequisite:  Computer Aided Design

 Course Outline:

Week Topic Workshop Learning Materials Teaching Materials Note
1 M1.1. Additive Manufacturing Basic Concepts and processes

1. Additive Manufacturing workflow
2. Benefits & Limitations of Additive Manufacturing
3. Applications of 3D printing (Aerospace, Automotive, Robotics, Tooling, Healthcare,
Design, Education etc.)
4. Main technologies (ISO/ ASTM DIS 52900:2018)

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2 M1.2. Solid- Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies

1. Material Extrusion
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)
Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)
Freeform Fabrication (FF)
2. Sheet lamination
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)







3 M1.3. Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies

1. Powder Bed Fusion
Multi Jet Fusion (MJF)
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM)
2. Direct Energy Deposition
Laser Engineering Net Shape (LENS)
Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

4 M1.4. Liquid-Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies

1.  Vat photopolymerization
Stereolithography (SLA)
Digital Light Processing (DLP)
Continuous Digital Light Processing (CDLP)
2.   Material Jetting
Material Jetting (MJ)
NanoParticle Jetting (NPJ)
Drop on Demand (DOD)
3.  Binder Jetting

5 M2.1. STereoLithography (STL) Models

2. Binary STL
3. Color in binary STL
4. Facet normal
5. Use in 3D printing
6. Use in other fields
7. STL processing software

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6 M2.2. Slicing Techniques

1. STL-based Slicing
2. Direct Slicing
3. Slicing Software





7 M2.3. Reverse Engineering for Additive Manufacturing Applications

1. Reverse Engineering Technologies
2. Reverse Engineering Workflow
3. From Physical to Digital: Meshes and Solids



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8 M3.1. Optimization of 3D printing process parameters

1. Machine preparation and settings
2. Design rules for 3D printing
3. Part quality (layer height, line width etc.)
4. Part shell (wall thickness, top/bottom thickness, bottom pattern initial layer etc.)
5. Part infill (infill density, infill pattern, infill support etc.)
6. Material characteristics (printing temperature, flow rate, diameter etc)
7. Printing speed and travel
8. Post-processing
9. Technology specific parameters





9 M3.2. Influences, complementarity and Synergy in AM and conventional technologies

1. CNC manufacturing
2. Injection molding
3. Laser cutting & engraving
4. Stamping & cold plastic deformation





10 M3.3. Macro environment of AM

1. Workforce of the future
2. Intellectual property issues
3. Standards
4. Quality assurance
5. Manufacturing and Supply chain
6. Product design
7. Digital thread & Industry 4.0
8. European policies

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11 M3.4. AM Business models and reshaping production

1. Cloud manufacturing
3 x 3D – 3DPBM (,





12 – 15 M3.5. Case Studies/Group Projects MSIE-12-L-M3S5-W01


Laboratory Sessions

During each laboratory students undertake the following activities:

identify a need, design & develop a CAD model of a product, simulate the working movements in the CAD environment, optimize the 3D printing parameters for the function of the product, 3D print the product components, post process each component, assembly the product and demonstrate functionality.

Laboratory 1: Design and 3D print a master part; manufacture a silicone mold for rapid casting of epoxy resin.

Laboratory 2: Design and 3D print a non-demountable assembly (ex.: a whistle with the pellet inside);

Laboratory 3: Design and 3D print a functional gear assembly (use cylindrical, helical, conical or rack gears);

Laboratory 4: Reverse engineering of a mechanical part (engine cover and) and of an amorphous part (body part – hand, wrist)

Laboratory 5: Design and 3D print three joint types – cylindrical, spherical/ toroidal, universal joints (recommended application omni wheel)

Laboratory 6: Design and 3D print a Lithophane application (used pictures must be taken during the laboratory; a support must be designed for the 3D printed picture in order to incorporate the light source)

Laboratory 7: Design and 3D print a complex assembly with at least 8 moving parts (choose between: a mechanical iris or an adaptable phone/ camera mount)


Learning Resources:

Textbooks: No designated textbook, but class notes and handouts will be provided.

Laboratory: PPT handouts, necessary equipment, tools and consumables

Reference Books:

  1. ISO/ ASTM DIS 52900:2018 (E), (2018), Additive manufacturing – General principles – Terminology, ISO/ ASTM International 2018.
  2. Wohlers T., (2018), Wohlers Report 2018, 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry: Annual Worldwide Progress Report, Wohlers Associates, ISBN ISBN 978-0-9913332-4-0.
  3. Redwood B., Schöffer F., Garret B., (2017), The 3D Printing Handbook: Technologies, design and applications, Editura 3D Hubs, ISBN 978-90-827485-0-5.
  4. Zhang J., Jung Y.G., (2018), Additive Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, Quantifications and Applications, Elsevier, ISBN 978-0-12-812155-9
  5. Gibson I., Rosen D., Stucker B., (2015), Additive Manufacturing Technologies – 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing, Editura Springer, ISBN 978-1-4939-2112-6.
  6. Page T., (2012), Design for Additive Manufacturing: Guidelines for Cost Effective Manufacturing, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN 384732294X.
  7. Barnatt C., (2013), 3D Printing: The Next Industrial Revolution, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, ISBN-13: 978-1484181768.
  8. Marchese K., Gorham R., Joyce J., Sniderman B., Passaretti M., (2017), 3D opportunity for business capabilities – Additive manufacturing transforms the organization, Deloitte Insights, Available at:,
  9. Öberg C., Shams T., Asnafi N., (2018), Additive Manufacturing and Business Models: Current Knowledge and Missing Perspectives, Technology Innovation Management Review, Available at:Öberg_et_al_TIMReview_June2018.pdf

Journals and Magazines:

  • Rapid Prototyping Journal, Emerald
  • Additive Manufacturing, Elsevier
  • Virtual and Physical Prototyping, Taylor and Francis
  • Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Elsevier
  • Computer Aided Design, Elsevier
  • Computer and Industrial Engineering, Elsevier
  • International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Springer
  • International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Taylor and Francis
  • Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Elsevier

Teaching and Learning Methods:

The teaching is done via lectures, laboratories and project sessions by the instructor. Tutorial sessions are conducted on the use of tools in each subject. The learning methods include group discussion, individual/group assignment and group project/case study.

Time Distribution and Study Load:

Lectures: 15 hours

Laboratories: 45 hours

Group project/Tutorials/Assignments/Self-study: 70 hours

Workshops for Group project preparation: 30 hours

Evaluation Scheme:  The final grade will be computed according to the following weight distribution: Mid-semester examination 20%, assignments, workshops and group projects 50%, final examination 30%. In final grading,

An “A” would be awarded if a student shows a deep understanding of the knowledge learned through home assignments, project works, and exam results.

A “B” would be awarded if a student shows an overall understanding of all topics.

A “C” would be given if a student meets below average expectation in understanding and application of basic knowledge.

A “D” would be given if a student does not meet expectations in both understanding and application of the given knowledge.

Developers: Mihaela-Elena ULMEANU (UPB), Pisut KOOMSAP (AIT), Dorota KLIMECKA (CUT)

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